Located 24 degrees North and 90 degrees East, Bangladesh is among the youngest countries in the world, having been officially formed as a distinct political entity only in the 1970’s. Despite its youth, getting to Bangladesh is not difficult at all, with relatively few restrictions placed on travellers. While a visa is in fact required, it is quite easy to obtain by visiting your local Bangladeshi consulate: if it so happens that your country has none, you may apply for one once you get to Bangladesh itself. Take note that there are a few states whose citizens are currently not required to produce a visa for travelling in Bangladesh, including Vatican City, the Bahamas, Fiji, and the Honduras. Other entries in this list may be found on the Bangladeshi government’s official tourism and travel site. Most westerners, for the record, are going to need a visa, including those coming from the US and UK.
Getting to Bangladesh by land may involve getting a visa from the Bangladesh High Commission in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), India. This is typically the route people take when coming from India and heading to Bangladesh, although there are also a few who have managed to enter the country by way of overland travel from Myanmar. These are exceptions, though: the routes from Myanmar to Bangladesh are usually closed, and only unpredictable fluctuations in the regional situation can lead to them being reopened. For the most part, it is best to assume that you cannot travel over land routes from that country to Bangladesh, and that India is the best jump-off point for overland travel, as it were. Note that if you are an Indian citizen, you are likely to make off with a visa from the High Commission without paying anything, although foreigners can expect to shell out upwards of $100 for the visa.
Getting to Bangladesh by air is possible too, of course, and there are already just under 20 airports functioning in the small country. Of these, though, only 15 have been paved, although plans to develop transport as well as travel infrastructure are being bandied about. The airports are certainly acceptable and several airlines from around the world, especially from Asia, are running regular flights to the country. Most of the flights shall deposit you in Dhaka, the country’s capital. If you are travelling by air, be warned that it is currently wisest to take private carriers instead of the country’s national airline: the airline has been reported by travellers as still lacking organisation and promptness at the moment.
The final possibility some entertain, getting to Bangladesh by sea, is not advisable at all and generally not practised. This is because most people recognise the current security difficulties afflicting the Bay of Bengal, namely the rampant sea piracy in those waters. Most ships are still being attacked in the area by sea thieves, so it is best to simply steer clear of the sea route for now and stick to either air or land travel, both of which are certainly far safer.