Taking care of your health in Bangladesh is not simple, not least because health has an extremely small allocation of the state budget in the country. There is also a noteworthy dearth of trained medical personnel in the rural areas (which would mean most of the country) that has led to majority of rural medical practitioners being people who have never gone to medical school and thus being prone to delivering diagnoses and prescriptions that do not come from a reassuringly informed position. This does not mean it is impossible to preserve your health in Bangladesh: it does mean, however, that you shall have to take a good number of precautions for it.
First off, as mentioned above, there are remarkably few medically-trained “doctors” in the rural areas of the country, with figures often ranging only from 4% to 5%. As such, if you do get into trouble and find yourself in need of a licensed physician, your best bet is still to go to the urban capitals, most particularly to Dhaka, where there are actual hospitals. If it transpires that this is not possible, you must take care to research the locations and names of licensed practitioners’ clinics wherever you are headed: this means that before you leave the city limits, you should have a list of trustworthy doctors in your pocket already. There are several resources for the purpose of your research, including Emedicalpoint (just add ‘dot-com’), which list names of medical facilities in the country. Map your route, look up clinics and hospitals nearby, and take down their addresses and contact numbers ahead of time.
The next thing to do is to have a little consciousness of which diseases are afflicting this country and how to avoid them. Particularly common in rural areas (but not restricted to them) are the mosquito-borne diseases of malaria and dengue fever. This means that tourists should wear long-sleeved clothing as much as possible. Other than that, bringing mosquito repellents is absolutely vital, given how much of the country is constantly water-logged: swampy places, one should remember, are havens for mosquitoes… and are also good places in which leptospirosis may fester. In fact, finding healthy water is a major problem in this country-which is perhaps a little ironic considering how much of it Bangladesh has.
Leptospirosis, diarrhoea, at least two strains of hepatitis, typhoid fever, and arsenic poisoning are all reported fairly often here. This should indicate to you how important it shall be for you to find a reliable source of usable water. It is vital that the traveller concerned for his health in Bangladesh not take this matter lightly: arsenic poisoning alone has caused the WHO to call the Bangladeshi situation potentially among the biggest mass poisoning cases ever. Avoid using water from the wells, drink only bottled water, be extremely discriminatory about what you eat (street food is a big culprit for many diseases), and monitor your own condition at all times. This is the best way to stay healthy in Bangladesh.